Advance tax refers to the tax payment made by an assessee before the end of the financial year. It is also known as ‘pay as you earn’ tax and is to be paid on the basis of estimated income during the year. A person has to pay advance tax only when the total tax liability exceeds Rs 10,000 in a financial year. Usually, it is expected that you will earn the income first, only then you will pay the taxes on it. However, in case of advance tax, an assessee has to estimate his income for the year and pay the taxes partially or fully in advance.
Advance tax majorly applies to self-employed people like businessmen, professionals, freelancers, etc. Senior citizens who do not run any business are exempt from paying advance tax. Salaried individuals do not have to pay advance taxes since their taxes are already deducted at source when the salary is released. In fact, any kind of assessee whose tax is deducted at source will not have to pay advance tax. For example, a freelancer works for two clients of which one sends him the amount after TDS deduction whereas the other doesn’t. In such cases, advance tax needs to be paid for the second client only as the first one has already deducted tax at source.
Starting with the Financial Year 2016-17, those who opt for the presumptive scheme under the Income Tax Act are required to pay the entire amount of their advance tax on or before 15th of March. A grace period of 15 days, that is, till 31st March is also allowed. Presumptive taxation scheme is offered to small businesses wherein the business income is presumed at 8% of the turnover or gross receipts of the given business year. In case the gross receipts/turnover is received by way of an account payee bank draft or account payee cheque or with the use of electronic clearing system, the business income should be calculated at 6% of the turnover. The amount calculated thereafter becomes the final taxable income for the business and the advance tax should be paid on this amount.
The Income Tax Department has laid different rules regarding the payment of Advance Tax for companies and individual professionals who are required to pay advance tax during a financial year. The tables given below show the due dates and instalments for different types of assessees.
1. Advance Tax Due Dates for Corporate Taxpayers
Corporate taxpayers are required to pay Advance Tax in four instalments.
|Due Date of Instalment||Amount of Advance Tax Payable|
|On or before 15th June||15% of Advance Tax|
|On or before 15th September||45% of Advance Tax minus the previous instalment|
|On or before 15th December||75% of Advance Tax minus the previous instalments|
|On or before 15th March||100% of Advance Tax minus the previous instalments|
2. Advance Tax Due Dates for Individual Taxpayers
Individual taxpayers are required to pay their advance taxes in three instalments as given below-
|Due Date of Instalments||Amount payable|
|On or before 15th September||At least 30% of Advance Tax|
|On or before 15th December||At least 60% of Advance Tax after deducting amount paid in earlier instalment|
|On or before 15th March||The remaining balance of Advance Tax|
3. Advance Tax Due Dates for Small Businesses who have opted for presumptive taxation scheme
Such business taxpayers will have to pay the entire amount of their advance tax on or before 31st March of every year. The taxes should be calculated at 6% or 8% of their business receipts for the given year, based on the mode of such receipt.
Advance tax instalments are to be paid on the basis of estimated income for a business year. It is usually done on the basis of previous income trends of the taxpayers. The assessee has to estimate his future income and pay the taxes accordingly. This calculated income will be reduced by TDS deducted, TCS collected, MAT /AMT credit and any relief under tax-treaty. After making the first two instalments, the assessee can also revise the estimated income and pay the next instalments accordingly.
Unlike other cases where the government asks for tax payment, here the onus is on the taxpayer to calculate his income for an assessment year and make the payments in advance in the current financial year. The reason why this is done is because the person who earns the income will know the future trends better than the tax authorities.
For example, a businessman Ravi Prasad estimated his taxable income at Rs 5,00,000.
The taxes to be paid on this income will be Rs 1,54,500 (including education cess)
According to the rule, he will have to pay this advance tax in four instalments, as shown below-
|Due Date||Advance Tax Payable||Amount|
|On or before 15th June||15% of Advance Tax||23,175|
|On or before 15th September||45% of Advance Tax||46,350|
|On or before 15th December||75% of Advance Tax||46,350|
|On or before 15th March||100% of Advance Tax||38,625|
Interest Charges on Short Payment of Advance Tax Instalment
Under section 234B, if the assessee has not paid any advance tax or paid an amount during the year which is less than 90 percent of his total advance tax liability, interest will be charged at the rate of 1% per month starting from 1st April of the financial year.
For example, Nisha calculated her total tax liability at Rs 50,000 but she made this payment on 15th June, at the time of filing her tax returns. So, she will have to pay interest @1% on the amount for three months- April, May and June.
1% of 50,000= Rs 500
For three months, the interest will be Rs 500 x 3 = Rs 1,500
Hence, Nisha will have to pay an interest of Rs 1,500 for not making the advance tax payment.
Nisha’s friend Rahul’s net taxable income during the year was Rs 65,000. However, he made a payment of Rs 55,000 when he was filing his ITR in the end of May. Since this amount is less than 90% of his total tax liability, he was also required to pay the interest at 1% on the balance amount.
1% of 10,000 for two months April and May = Rs 200
A number of bank branches have been authorised by the Income Tax Department for receiving Advance Tax payment on behalf of the government. You can visit any of the bank branches and make the required payment. Alternatively, you can make online payment by visiting the official website of the income tax department.
- Visit the e-payment facility on the website of Income Tax Department.
- Choose the right form for the payment of Advance Tax.
- Fill out all correct information on the form.
- Once you click on proceed, you will be redirected to the net banking page or debit card payment gateway, whichever you have opted for.
- Make the payment.
- After making the payment, you will get the receipt called Challan 280 on the next screen. Save a copy of it as you will need it at the time of filing ITR.
In case you have made an extra payment towards the advance tax, you can claim a refund by filling and submitting Form 30. Note that this refund request has to be made within a year of paying the advance tax.